Introduction to Metaphysics
An Introduction to Metaphysics in our world – Let’s begin. The term “Metaphysics” is the combination of two words; Meta & Physics. Physics is the branch of science dealing with the matter and its motion, while Meta is a Greek word, while means beyond, over or before something. Metaphysics implies to all the knowledge that is beyond the understanding of physics. It tends to find answers of the fundamental questions related to the existence and identity, being and becoming, time and space, object and matter, holy numbers and much more.
Metaphysics aims to question the concepts of spirit science, which are related to every aspect of life. Some questions are:
What is being?
What types of objects are included in being?
Who created the being and why?
Is there any outside world beyond the human mind?
What is free will?
Does it exist?
Who created the universe and why?
Does God or the first cause exist?
If yes, then where is He and how can the being approach him?
Is He more than one? What does He want?
Introduction to Metaphysics – Basic Concepts:
Metaphysics is that branch of philosophy, which is related to all Universal objects, whether they are humans, supernatural creatures, divine, cosmic, holy numbers or any spiritual stuff. It has a wide variety of concepts, mentioned below:
Object can be anything under observation. In metaphysics, objects are classified into various kinds. They may be distinguished:
By type like gemstones, human body parts, instruments of torture
By material like wooden objects, gold objects, bronze objects
Hypothetical objects like exotic matter, negative mass, hypothetical particles
Former entities like obsolete calendars, defunct publications, extinct species
Physical objects like astronomical objects, rocks, machines
Impossible objects like cube with magic ribbons, blivet, penrose triangle
- Existence and Identity:
The basic Metaphysics term “ontology” deals with the phenomenon of existence that what exists and what can be said to have existence. It further explains that how the existed beings are subdivided and what are their relationships among each other. The debate of existence of God is also included. Identity is the relation every being has with itself. This field discusses Law of Identity in detail, because it is the key proof of the existence of every being.
- Change and Causality:
Change is the metaphysical object, which means the alteration of events or identities. For bringing change, there must be some “cause”, as an “effect” of which, the change takes place. This relationship between two events, cause & effect is called “causality”. The first event, aka, cause is the reason of the second event, aka, effect. Cause is the answer of the “Why’’ questions.
- Free Will:
It is the ability to choose between the two paths and to be completely responsible for the chosen decision. It is further related to pride, sin, praise, responsibility and guilt etc.
If free will exists, then the concepts of blaming or deserving credit make sense, but if not, then there is no rewarding, punishment or any type of retributive justification.
Introduction to Metaphysics – History:
The exact history of Metaphysics is absurd, but the Plato’s and Aristotle’s work for this field is considered authentic.
Plato, Aristotle’s master, thought that due to the fact that the material objects are constantly changing, the abstract ideas are more real than them as they can be more permanent.
Aristotle’s ideas contrast with that of Plato’s. He had three actual concerns; ontology, cosmology and theology. Ontology deals with the study of nature of being (existence) and its relationships. Cosmology is about the fundamental procedures and the actual reasons of physical events. Theology explains the first cause; the very existence and reasoning of God. His theory of already existing “change and causality” in the universe stretched to the 4 main causes; material, formal, efficient and final.
However, none of them used the label “Metaphysics” as it was invented in the year 70, A.D by Andronicus of Rhodes, who was the head of Aristotle’s Peripatetic School and responsible for editing and arranging the Aristotle’s work.
The knowledge of Metaphysics continued to the medieval philosophers, who took it as the science of supersensible and spread it toward much broader views. Then after the renaissance, Metaphysics was again limited to Aristotelian concepts of 4 causes.
After that, Descartes made a great emphasis on the subject by separating the deterministic physical realm from the undetermined spiritual realm. Then in Germany, Immanuel Kant reached to the Age of Reason and accepted the determinism of the physical world, which he named phenomenal world.
In modern days, Metaphysics is considered a science and English philosophers explain it as mental phenomena or try to narrow it to the creation and development of different sorts of reality.